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Proceedings Paper

Through pitch intensity balancing and phase error analysis of 193-nm alternating phase shift masks
Author(s): Kent H. Nakagawa; Gregory P. Hughes; Keuntaek Park; Peter Buck
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Paper Abstract

An investigation of the predominant industry approaches to transmission balance and phase error through pitch of Alternating Aperture Phase-Shifting Mask manufacturing approaches has been conducted. Previous theoretical studies have shown both clear pattern bias and phase error changes through pitch. These variations are significant for the Low K1 applications. Several approaches have been proposed and discussed in previous papers, including undercut, asymmetric pattern biasing, mask phase-only, dual trench, SCAA, and others. Although much of the discussion has focused on lithographic process performance, some of the constraints in the mask making infrastructure may differentiate between processes of similar performance. Two manufacturable approaches, wet etch undercut and asymmetric pattern biasing, have been studied by electromagnetic field simulation to explore the across pitch performance at 193nm. This has been compared to experimental measurement of photomasks measured with a 193 Zeiss AIMS (Aerial Image Microscope System). Both mask fabrication approaches are compared to the simulations. The performance of both mask approaches to pattern bias and phase error was evaluated, and the feasibility of through pitch correction and its impact on design and manufacturability of the photomask is discussed.

Paper Details

Date Published: 28 May 2004
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 5377, Optical Microlithography XVII, (28 May 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.535956
Show Author Affiliations
Kent H. Nakagawa, DuPont Photomasks, Inc. (United States)
Gregory P. Hughes, DuPont Photomasks, Inc. (United States)
Keuntaek Park, DuPont Photomasks, Inc. (United States)
Peter Buck, DuPont Photomasks, Inc. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5377:
Optical Microlithography XVII
Bruce W. Smith, Editor(s)

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