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Proceedings Paper

Three-dimensional virtual images for security applications
Author(s): Douglas S. Dunn; Robert T. Krasa; James M. Jonza
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Paper Abstract

Three-dimensional images may be produced by a number of methods, the earliest being integral photography. The basic concept involves exposing a photographic emulsion to light scattered from an object through a fly's eye lens to produce an array of micro-images, one behind each lenslet. An observer viewing the composite image through the lenslet array sees a three-dimensional representation of the object. Over the past 5 years, 3M has applied laser technology to the creation of three-dimensional virtual images using the integral photography approach. The virtual images made by this process can be observed by a viewer with the unaided eye in either reflected or transmitted light. The images display large movement as an observer's viewing perspective changes and have a distinct on/off-viewing angle beyond which the image cannot be seen. The fidelity of the virtual images requires maintaining the registration of the substrate lenslets and the micro-images produced by the laser imaging process. This makes the images difficult to copy or modify and an ideal, cost-effective candidate for an overt security feature.

Paper Details

Date Published: 3 June 2004
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 5310, Optical Security and Counterfeit Deterrence Techniques V, (3 June 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.527085
Show Author Affiliations
Douglas S. Dunn, 3M Co. (United States)
Robert T. Krasa, 3M Co. (United States)
James M. Jonza, 3M Co. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5310:
Optical Security and Counterfeit Deterrence Techniques V
Rudolf L. van Renesse, Editor(s)

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