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Proceedings Paper

Self-made silver-bromide-based emulsions for users in holography: manufacturing, processing, and application
Author(s): Lothar Duenkel; Juergen Eichler; Gerhard Ackermann; Claudia Schneeweiss
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Paper Abstract

Holography is the most fascinating technology for three-dimensional imaging. But despite of many decades of research, the seek for an ideal recording material has never been given up. From all ultra-fine materials, silver bromide emulsions with very small grain sizes have the highest sensitivity. In recent years however, many traditional manufacturers discontinued their production. Meanwhile, newcomers succeeded in manufacturing emulsions which are very suitable for holography, concerning extremely high resolution, brigthness and sensitivity1. But two problems may still linger: First, the deficient market situation for production and application on this field. Second, the reputation of the system of being extremely complicated for laboratory preparation. In such a crucial situation, the authors have succeeded in presenting a laboratory procedure for making do-it-yourself materials available to any expert who is well versed in holography, and who disposes of normal darkroom equipment2. The methodology is based on precipitation using the traditional double-jet method according to Thiry and predecessors3. But sensitization is carried out by a diffusion process according to the procedure as proposed by Blyth et al.4 Thus, precipitation and coating on one side and sensitization on the other one are separated strictly from one another. Efficient desaltation is an important process too, warranting the high opto-mechanical quality of the layer. The material has been sensitzed for HeNe-Laser radiation (632,8 nm) only up to now. The mean diameter of the silver bromide grains is about 15 nm, as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Phillips-Bjelkhagen Ultimate (PBU) or Fe3+ rehalogenation bleach are applied successfully5-6. In final result, a new generation of holograms with ultra-high resolution, proper contrast, excellent sharpness and light brightness has been obtained. Holography belongs to an advancing technology where the search for an ideal recording material is still going on. Of these materials, the ultrafine grain silver bromide emulsions are unsurpassed in sensitivity. But in recent years many traditional manufacturers discontinued their production. In such a critical situation, the authors have succeeded in developing a new technology to make do-it-yourself materials of very high quality. The procedure involves elements of two different methods: The traditional double-jet method by pouring silver nitrate and potassium bromide into a vigorously stirred gelatin solution, and a diffusion process to sensitize the coated layer efficiently. The material has been sensitized for He/Ne-laser radiation by 632.8 nm. Denisyuk holograms of real 3D-objects were obtained in ultrahigh resolution, excellent brightness and clarity with CW-C2 developer and PBU rehalogenation bleach according to Bjelkhagen et al. The material is characterized by TEM, reflexion spectroscopy, and other methods. The new results have been involved in university education already with great success. The fundamental principles of the methodology as well as new results by application in intellectual and hybrid systems were reported.

Paper Details

Date Published: 29 June 2004
PDF: 5 pages
Proc. SPIE 5290, Practical Holography XVIII: Materials and Applications, (29 June 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.525035
Show Author Affiliations
Lothar Duenkel, Technische Fachhochschule Berlin (Germany)
Juergen Eichler, Technische Fachhochschule Berlin (Germany)
Gerhard Ackermann, Technische Fachhochschule Berlin (Germany)
Claudia Schneeweiss, Technische Fachhochschule Berlin (Germany)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5290:
Practical Holography XVIII: Materials and Applications
Tung H. Jeong; Hans I. Bjelkhagen, Editor(s)

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