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Proceedings Paper

Limitations of proximity-effect correction for electron-beam patterning of photonic crystals
Author(s): Robert Wuest; Christoph Hunziker; Franck Robin; Patric Strasser; Daniel Erni; Heinz Jackel
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Paper Abstract

We investigate the patterning-accuracy limits of proximity-effect corrected (PEC) electron-beam lithography applied to the fabrication of photonic crystals (PhC's). Energy-intensity distribution simulations reveal that conventional dose-modulation PEC techniques present a lower limit of the best attainable hole-radius variation of approximately 1% for a generic PhC structure, while a PEC method proposed by Watson theoretically should yield perfect correction. Simulation results were verified experimentally and additionally we introduce a new method to determine the beam-broadening parameter α. We analyzed the impact of geometrical key parameters of PhC's on achievable patterning accuracy and showed that proximity effects impose severe limitations on the patterning of structures with large filling factors and/or small lattice constants. Furthermore, we performed a sensitivity analysis on the proximity parameters and showed that overestimation of the backscatter efficiency can actually improve the lithographic accuracy and mimic the Watson-PEC method to a certain degree.

Paper Details

Date Published: 25 March 2004
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 5277, Photonics: Design, Technology, and Packaging, (25 March 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.522316
Show Author Affiliations
Robert Wuest, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Switzerland)
Christoph Hunziker, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Switzerland)
Franck Robin, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Switzerland)
Patric Strasser, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Switzerland)
Daniel Erni, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Switzerland)
Heinz Jackel, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Switzerland)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5277:
Photonics: Design, Technology, and Packaging
Chennupati Jagadish; Kent D. Choquette; Benjamin J. Eggleton; Brett D. Nener; Keith A. Nugent, Editor(s)

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