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Proceedings Paper

X-ray imaging for security applications
Author(s): J. Paul Evans
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Paper Abstract

The X-ray screening of luggage by aviation security personnel may be badly hindered by the lack of visual cues to depth in an image that has been produced by transmitted radiation. Two-dimensional "shadowgraphs" with "organic" and "metallic" objects encoded using two different colors (usually orange and blue) are still in common use. In the context of luggage screening there are no reliable cues to depth present in individual shadowgraph X-ray images. Therefore, the screener is required to convert the 'zero depth resolution' shadowgraph into a three-dimensional mental picture to be able to interpret the relative spatial relationship of the objects under inspection. Consequently, additional cognitive processing is required e.g. integration, inference and memory. However, these processes can lead to serious misinterpretations of the actual physical structure being examined. This paper describes the development of a stereoscopic imaging technique enabling the screener to utilise binocular stereopsis and kinetic depth to enhance their interpretation of the actual nature of the objects under examination. Further work has led to the development of a technique to combine parallax data (to calculate the thickness of a target material) with the results of a basis material subtraction technique to approximate the target's effective atomic number and density. This has been achieved in preliminary experiments with a novel spatially interleaved dual-energy sensor which reduces the number of scintillation elements required by 50% in comparison to conventional sensor configurations.

Paper Details

Date Published: 30 December 2003
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 5199, Penetrating Radiation Systems and Applications V, (30 December 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.515134
Show Author Affiliations
J. Paul Evans, Nottingham Trent Univ. (United Kingdom)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5199:
Penetrating Radiation Systems and Applications V
H. Bradford Barber; F. Patrick Doty; Hans Roehrig, Editor(s)

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