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Proceedings Paper

Large-aperture compound refractive lenses
Author(s): J. Theodore Cremer; Melvin A. Piestrup; Charles K. Gary; Richard H. Pantell
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Paper Abstract

We have measured the intensity profile and transmission of x-rays focused by a series of bi-concave parabolic unit lenses fabricated in lithium and beryllium. For specified focal length and photon energy, lithium and beryllium compound refractive lenses (CRL) have a larger transmission, aperture size, and gain compared to aluminum, epoxy, and kapton CRLs. One Li CRL was composed of 335 bi-concave, parabolic unit lenses, each with an on-axis radius of curvature of 0.95 mm. This Li CRL achieved a 95 cm focal length at 8 keV with an effective aperture of 1 mm, an on-axis (peak) transmission of 26 %, and an on-axis intensity gain of 18.9. The beryllium compound refractive lens was composed of 160 bi-concave unit lenses, each with a radius of curvature of 1.9 mm. The Be CRL achieved two-dimensional focusing at 6.5 keV with a gain of 1.5, peak transmission of 9 %, focal length of 93 cm, and an effective aperture of 600 μm. Based upon the principle of spontaneous emission amplification in an FEL wiggler, coherent x-ray sources are being developed with wavelengths of 1-1.5 Å and source diameters of 50-80 μm, and the Be and Li CRL may be used to provide a small, intense image. For these coherent x-ray source parameters, the large apertures of Be and Li CRLs enable intensity gains of 105 to 106.

Paper Details

Date Published: 28 January 2004
PDF: 28 pages
Proc. SPIE 5194, Fourth-Generation X-Ray Sources and Ultrafast X-Ray Detectors, (28 January 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.514857
Show Author Affiliations
J. Theodore Cremer, Adelphi Technology, Inc. (United States)
Melvin A. Piestrup, Adelphi Technology, Inc. (United States)
Charles K. Gary, Adelphi Technology, Inc. (United States)
Richard H. Pantell, Stanford Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5194:
Fourth-Generation X-Ray Sources and Ultrafast X-Ray Detectors
Zenghu Chang; Roman O. Tatchyn; Jean-Claude Kieffer; Jerome B. Hastings, Editor(s)

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