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Proceedings Paper

Channeling radiation as an x-ray source for angiography, x-ray lithography, molecular structure determination, and elemental analysis
Author(s): Herbert Uberall; Bruce J. Faraday; Xavier K. Maruyama; Barry Louis Berman
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Paper Abstract

Synchrotron radiation of 33 keV ((lambda) approximately equals 0.4 angstrom) has been tentatively employed for coronary angiography studies; the results were successful, but lack clinical quality. Synchrotron radiation has been proposed as a source for microlithography and the efficient production of integrated circuits, using energies of 0.5 - 2.5 keV ((lambda) approximately equals 5 - 20 angstroms). This application, although not yet carried out in earnest, appeared promising enough so that a number of synchrotron sources dedicated to this purpose are now being set up worldwide. Such applications require storage rings for GeV electrons, costing $20 - 60 million each. Less expensive, lower energy linacs, affordable by individual hospitals or smaller institutions, can produce kev channeling radiation suitable for microlithography and angiography. Channeling-radiation intensities, especially for x-ray energies of some tens of keV and higher will surpass synchrotron-radiation intensities. We have carried out quantitative studies confirming the above conclusions regarding the comparison of channeling radiation and synchrotron radiation. We found that < 5 MeV electron linacs costing less than $1 million can generate few keV channeling radiation intensities comparable to that of synchrotron radiation, suitable for microlithography and calcium-based angiography, as well as x-ray diffraction structure analysis and elemental analysis by x-ray fluorescence. (For iodine-based angiography, 20 MeV linacs are required.) If transition radiation were used for the same purposes, more expensive linacs of an order of magnitude higher electron energy would be needed.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 December 1991
PDF: 16 pages
Proc. SPIE 1552, Short-Wavelength Radiation Sources, (1 December 1991); doi: 10.1117/12.50606
Show Author Affiliations
Herbert Uberall, SFA, Inc. (United States)
Bruce J. Faraday, SFA, Inc. (United States)
Xavier K. Maruyama, Naval Postgraduate School (United States)
Barry Louis Berman, George Washington Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1552:
Short-Wavelength Radiation Sources
Phillip Sprangle, Editor(s)

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