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Proceedings Paper

The nature of fundamental 1/f noise in quantum sensing technology, negative entropy, and uncertainty principle
Author(s): Peter H. Handel
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Paper Abstract

Most sensors traduce various environmental, industrial, or laboratory parameters into electrical signals. Quantum sensing pushes this to the ultimate limit of achievable sensitivity, detectivity, resolution, and stability. Quantum mechanics sets these limits through the uncertainty principle. It causes the ubiquitous 1/f noise, as we show here for LiNbO3. Quantum 1/f theory, known as the quantum theory of the fundamental 1/f noise phenomenon, is a new aspect of quantum mechanics, that governs the nonlinear interaction of particle and field, introducing the new notions of "physical cross sections" (PCS) and "physical process rates" (PPR). These contain the fundamental macroscopic quantum 1/f fluctuations. They yield the usually defined PCS and PPR with infrared radiative corrections, when the expectation value is taken over the low-frequency photon states of negative entropy. The physical charged particle, such as an electron, contains both the bare particle and its electromagnetic field. The latter is in a coherent state, where the phase of the electromagnetic field oscillators is determined. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle then requires that the energy must be uncertain, leading to nonstationary states describing the particle. The particle’s resulting fractional current fluctuations in large devices always have the spectrum 2α/πf, where α=1/137 is the fine structure constant.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 July 2003
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 4999, Quantum Sensing: Evolution and Revolution from Past to Future, (1 July 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.501205
Show Author Affiliations
Peter H. Handel, Univ. of Missouri/St. Louis (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4999:
Quantum Sensing: Evolution and Revolution from Past to Future
Manijeh Razeghi; Gail J. Brown, Editor(s)

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