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Proceedings Paper

Cross-layer protocols optimized for real-time multimedia services in energy-constrained mobile ad hoc networks
Author(s): William S. Hortos
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Paper Abstract

Mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) supports self-organizing, mobile infrastructures and enables an autonomous network of mobile nodes that can operate without a wired backbone. Ad hoc networks are characterized by multihop, wireless connectivity via packet radios and by the need for efficient dynamic protocols. All routers are mobile and can establish connectivity with other nodes only when they are within transmission range. Importantly, ad hoc wireless nodes are resource-constrained, having limited processing, memory, and battery capacity. Delivery of high quality-ofservice (QoS), real-time multimedia services from Internet-based applications over a MANET is a challenge not yet achieved by proposed Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) ad hoc network protocols in terms of standard performance metrics such as end-to-end throughput, packet error rate, and delay. In the distributed operations of route discovery and maintenance, strong interaction occurs across MANET protocol layers, in particular, the physical, media access control (MAC), network, and application layers. The QoS requirements are specified for the service classes by the application layer. The cross-layer design must also satisfy the battery-limited energy constraints, by minimizing the distributed power consumption at the nodes and of selected routes. Interactions across the layers are modeled in terms of the set of concatenated design parameters including associated energy costs. Functional dependencies of the QoS metrics are described in terms of the concatenated control parameters. New cross-layer designs are sought that optimize layer interdependencies to achieve the “best” QoS available in an energy-constrained, time-varying network. The protocol design, based on a reactive MANET protocol, adapts the provisioned QoS to dynamic network conditions and residual energy capacities. The cross-layer optimization is based on stochastic dynamic programming conditions derived from time-dependent models of MANET packet flows. Regulation of network behavior is modeled by the optimal control of the conditional rates of multivariate point processes (MVPPs); these rates depend on the concatenated control parameters through a change of probability measure. The MVPP models capture behavior of many service applications, e.g., voice, video and the self-similar behavior of Internet data sessions. Performance verification of the cross-layer protocols, derived from the dynamic programming conditions, can be achieved by embedding the conditions in a reactive routing protocol for MANETs, in a simulation environment, such as the wireless extension of ns-2. A canonical MANET scenario consists of a distributed collection of battery-powered laptops or hand-held terminals, capable of hosting multimedia applications. Simulation details and performance tradeoffs, not presented, remain for a sequel to the paper.

Paper Details

Date Published: 23 July 2003
PDF: 22 pages
Proc. SPIE 5100, Digital Wireless Communications V, (23 July 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.488493
Show Author Affiliations
William S. Hortos, Florida Institute of Technology (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5100:
Digital Wireless Communications V
Raghuveer M. Rao; Soheil A. Dianat; Michael D. Zoltowski, Editor(s)

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