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Proceedings Paper

Single- and three-axis geophone: footstep detection with bearing estimation, localization, and tracking
Author(s): Alex Pakhomov; Albert Sicignano; Matthew Sandy; E. Tim Goldburt
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Paper Abstract

Tactical capabilities of single and three axis geophones for seismic detection and bearing estimation for homeland security and defense applications are described. It is shown that typically three axis geophones yield a high bearing estimation error. An alternate bearing estimation approach is based on using the time delay in footstep signal detection from three triangulated single axis vertical geophones. In this approach the standard deviation of the bearing estimation error is less than 12 degrees for a walking person distance of 10 to 70m and geophone distances of 8 to 9 m. We find that using the three-axis geophone approach makes it harder for path tracking and bearing estimation within the tactical zone area. We report that a single-axis geophone approach for riangulation of walking person is more effective. In addition, road monitoring is also more efficient using a single-axis geophone approach. We compare the relative and absolute improvement of bearing estimation probability for road monitoring using three single-axis geophones versus 1, 2 and 3 three-axis geophones. We will also discuss the use of single axis vertical geophone sets for monitoring various zone sizes.

Paper Details

Date Published: 18 September 2003
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 5090, Unattended Ground Sensor Technologies and Applications V, (18 September 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.487755
Show Author Affiliations
Alex Pakhomov, General Sensing Systems LLC (United States)
Albert Sicignano, General Sensing Systems LLC (United States)
Matthew Sandy, General Sensing Systems LLC (United States)
E. Tim Goldburt, General Sensing Systems LLC (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5090:
Unattended Ground Sensor Technologies and Applications V
Edward M. Carapezza, Editor(s)

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