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Proceedings Paper

Impact of wavefront errors on low k1 processes at extremely high NA
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Paper Abstract

This paper presents a comprehensive study of the impact of wavefront errors on low-k1-imaging performance using high numerical aperture NA lithographic systems. In particular, we introduce a linear model that correctly describes the aberration induced imaging effects. This model allows us to quantify the aberration requirements for future lithographic nodes. Moreover, we derive scaling laws characterizing the imaging performance in dependence on the key parameters exposure wavelength λ, NA, and k1. Our investigations demonstrate, first, that an accurate control of coma is and will be crucial, and, second, that spherical requirements will be very tight for k1<0.3 due to isolated contact printing. Finally, we summarize the results of this paper in a roadmap covering the aberration requirements in optical lithography down to the 45nm node. We conclude that the improvement of wavefront quality is necessary to enable imaging enhancement techniques, but is not sufficient to replace these techniques.

Paper Details

Date Published: 26 June 2003
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 5040, Optical Microlithography XVI, (26 June 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.482694
Show Author Affiliations
Paul Graeupner, Carl Zeiss SMT AG (Germany)
Reiner B. Garreis, Carl Zeiss SMT AG (Germany)
Aksel Goehnermeier, Carl Zeiss SMT AG (Germany)
Tilmann Heil, Carl Zeiss SMT AG (Germany)
Martin Lowisch, Carl Zeiss SMT AG (Germany)
Donis G. Flagello, ASML (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5040:
Optical Microlithography XVI
Anthony Yen, Editor(s)

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