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Proceedings Paper

Reliability and failure mechanisms of oxide VCSELs in nonhermetic environments
Author(s): Suning Xie; Robert W. Herrick; Gregory N. De Brabander; Wilson H. Widjaja; Uli Koelle; An-Nien Cheng; Laura M. Giovane; Frank Z.Y. Hu; Mark R. Keever; Tim Osentowski; Scott A. McHugo; Myrna S. Mayonte; Seongsin M. Kim; Danielle R. Chamberlin; S. Jeffrey Rosner; Grant Girolami
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Paper Abstract

High speed fiber optic transceiver modules using parallel optics require that oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) be moisture resistant in non-hermetic environments. Conventional storage 85/85 (85°C and 85% relative humidity) testing without a bias does not adequately characterize oxide VCSEL’s moisture resistance. Oxide VCSELs do not fail or degrade significantly under such conditions. With a bias, however, we have found that moisture can cause failure modes not seen in dry reliability testing. Without proper device design and fabrication, these failure modes lead to high failure rates in oxide VCSELs. In this paper, we first discuss the failure mechanisms we have identified, including dense dislocation network growth, semiconductor cracking and aperture surface degradation, all in high humidity and high temperature under operating conditions. We then report the results of environmental reliability tests on Agilent’s oxide VCSELs developed for the parallel optics modules. The results from a large number of wafers produced over an extended period of time have shown consistent, robust environmental reliability.

Paper Details

Date Published: 17 June 2003
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 4994, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers VII, (17 June 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.480281
Show Author Affiliations
Suning Xie, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (United States)
Robert W. Herrick, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (United States)
Gregory N. De Brabander, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (United States)
Wilson H. Widjaja, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (United States)
Uli Koelle, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (United States)
An-Nien Cheng, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (United States)
Laura M. Giovane, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (United States)
Frank Z.Y. Hu, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (United States)
Mark R. Keever, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (United States)
Tim Osentowski, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (United States)
Scott A. McHugo, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (United States)
Myrna S. Mayonte, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (United States)
Seongsin M. Kim, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (United States)
Danielle R. Chamberlin, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (United States)
S. Jeffrey Rosner, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (United States)
Grant Girolami, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4994:
Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers VII
Chun Lei; Sean P. Kilcoyne, Editor(s)

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