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Proceedings Paper

Audio watermarking for live performance
Author(s): Ryuki Tachibana
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Paper Abstract

Audio watermarking has been used mainly for digitally stored content. Using real-time watermark embedding, its coverage can be extended to live broadcasts and live performances. In general, a conventional embedding algorithm receives a host signal (HS) and outputs the summation of the HS and a watermark signal (WS). However, when applied to real-time embedding, there are two problems: (1) delay of the HS, and (2) possible interruption of the broadcast. To solve these problems, we propose a watermark generation algorithm that outputs only a WS, and a system composition method in which a mixer outside the computer mixes the WS generated by the algorithm and the HS. In addition, we propose a new composition method "sonic watermarking." In this composition method, the sound of the HS and the sound of the WS are played separately by two speakers, and the sounds are mixed in the air. Using this composition method, it would be possible to generate a watermarking sound in a concerto hall so that the watermark could be detected from content recorded by audience members who have recording devices at their seats. We report on the results of experiments and discuss the merits and flaws of various real-time watermarking composition methods.

Paper Details

Date Published: 20 June 2003
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 5020, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents V, (20 June 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.476832
Show Author Affiliations
Ryuki Tachibana, IBM Japan Ltd. (Japan)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5020:
Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents V
Edward J. Delp; Ping Wah Wong, Editor(s)

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