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Proceedings Paper

Defect topographic maps using a non-Lambertian photometric stereo method
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Paper Abstract

Industrial applications related to semiconductor wafer fabrication, such as Automatic Defect Classification (ADC), require reliable and rapid measurements of defect characteristics, typically within one second or less. Generally, ADC makes intensive use of 2D defect descriptors such as size or texture. Incorporation of 3D defect descriptors into the classifier can improve the ability to get a fast identification of the exact process step at which a given defect was introduced. Such 3D descriptors can be readily elucidated form a Defect Topographic Map (DTM), which holds the defect's complete 3D representation. In this paper, we introduce an approach for obtaining the DTM form a combination of a non-Lambertian reflectance function with a photometric stereo method (PSM), based on Multiple Perspective SEM Imaging. We also introduce a rapid map generation method based on the Fast Fourier Transform, which we name the Fourier Defect Topographic Map (FDTM). The FDTM exhibits good spatial performance as well as reduced computational requirements. Finally, we discus the detrimental effects of SEM material contrast effects on the generation of topographic maps. We show that effects such as shadowing and noise, can be readily overcome when using MPSI images, resulting in high-quality 3D defect representation.

Paper Details

Date Published: 12 July 2002
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 4692, Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics, (12 July 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.475658
Show Author Affiliations
Sergio David Serulnik, Applied Materials, Inc. (Israel)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4692:
Design, Process Integration, and Characterization for Microelectronics
Alexander Starikov; Alexander Starikov; Kenneth W. Tobin, Editor(s)

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