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Proceedings Paper

Contamination rates of optical surfaces at 157 nm in the presence of hydrocarbon impurities
Author(s): Theodore M. Bloomstein; Vladimir Liberman; Mordechai Rothschild; Stephen T. Palmacci; D. E. Hardy; Jan H. C. Sedlacek
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Paper Abstract

Photodeposition rates for ten hydrocarbon species have been measured on CaF2 substrates under 157-nm irradiation in the presence of ppm scale levels of oxygen. The species are representative of hydrocarbon based compounds observed in outgassing studies of common build materials used in 157-nm based lithographic systems. Photodeposition rates have also been measured for a subset of the hydrocarbon species on a MgF2 thin film, six anti-reflective dielectric stacks, and fluorine doped fused silica for comparison with the results on CaF2 substrates. Two contamination processes are observed. One is the formation of an equilibrium layer on the surfaces. The other is a quasi-permanent contamination which is most pronounced at elevated levels of contaminant.

Paper Details

Date Published: 30 July 2002
PDF: 15 pages
Proc. SPIE 4691, Optical Microlithography XV, (30 July 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.474620
Show Author Affiliations
Theodore M. Bloomstein, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
Vladimir Liberman, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
Mordechai Rothschild, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
Stephen T. Palmacci, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
D. E. Hardy, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
Jan H. C. Sedlacek, MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4691:
Optical Microlithography XV
Anthony Yen, Editor(s)

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