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Proceedings Paper

Measurement of the spatial evolution of the deprotection reaction front with nanometer resolution using neutron reflectometry
Author(s): Eric K. Lin; Christopher L. Soles; Dario L. Goldfarb; Brian C. Trinque; Sean D. Burns; Ronald L. Jones; Joseph L. Lenhart; Marie Angelopoulos; C. Grant Willson; Sushil K. Satija; Wen-li Wu
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Paper Abstract

The use of chemically amplified photoresists for the fabrication of sub-100 nm features will require spatial control with nanometer level resolution. To reach this goal, a detailed understanding of the complex reaction-diffusion mechanisms at these length scales is needed and will require high spatial resolution measurements. In particular, few experimental methods can directly measure the spatial evolution of the deprotection reaction front and correlate it with the developed structure. In this work, we demonstrate the complementary use of neutron (NR) and x-ray (XR) reflectometry to measure the reaction front profile with nanometer resolution. Using a bilayer geometry with a lower deuterium-substituted poly(tert-butoxycarboxystyrene) (d-PBOCSt) layer and an upper poly(hydroxystyrene) (PHOSt) layer loaded with a photoacid generator (PAG), we directly measure the spatial evolution of the reaction front. We show that the reaction front profile is broader than the initial interface after a post-exposure bake and the compositional profile changes upon development in an aqueous base solution. We also directly correlate the final developed structure with the reaction front profile. The spatial detail enabled by this general methodology can be used to differentiate between and evaluate quantitatively reaction-diffusion models.

Paper Details

Date Published: 24 July 2002
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 4690, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIX, (24 July 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.474229
Show Author Affiliations
Eric K. Lin, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Christopher L. Soles, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Dario L. Goldfarb, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Ctr. (United States)
Brian C. Trinque, Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Sean D. Burns, Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Ronald L. Jones, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Joseph L. Lenhart, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Marie Angelopoulos, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Ctr. (United States)
C. Grant Willson, Univ. of Texas at Austin (United States)
Sushil K. Satija, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Wen-li Wu, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4690:
Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIX
Theodore H. Fedynyshyn, Editor(s)

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