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Proceedings Paper

Measuring and simulating postexposure bake temperature effects in chemically amplified photoresists
Author(s): Doris Kang; Stewart A. Robertson
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Paper Abstract

The kinetic processes occurring during postexposure bake (PEB) were studied for different Shipley photoresists as a function of bake temperature with the aim of developing models to accurately simulate the observed temperature dependent responses. S7 193nm photoresist based on a high activation energy methacrylate platform and SL4000 248 nm photoresist based on a low activation energy acetal platform were investigated. Deprotection rate constants, Kamp, were measured directly by IR spectroscopy. Kamp was independent of PEB temperature for SL4000 and followed standard Arrhenius behavior for S7. Activation energies of deprotection determined from measurements of Kamp were 13.4 and 0.82 kcal/mol for S7 and SL4000, respectively, and of the same order of magnitude as the corresponding pseudo- Arrhenius activation energies, 10.3 and 3.2 kcal/mol, respectively, determined from E0 clearing doses as a matching experimental and simulated CDs of isolated lines as a function of PEB time and temperature. However, values of D could not be unambiguously determined because a finite bulk acid loss rate constant was required to accurately simulate the observed CD changes at high PEB temperature. The need for a blk acid loss rate constant at high bake temperatures suggests that the effects of base diffusion are significant under these conditions. CD changes in SL4000 were best simulated with a 1st order model, where the imaging chemistry occurs solely during the exposure step as in DNQ/Novolac photoresists.

Paper Details

Date Published: 24 July 2002
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 4690, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIX, (24 July 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.474171
Show Author Affiliations
Doris Kang, Shipley Co. Inc. (United States)
Stewart A. Robertson, Shipley Co. Inc. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4690:
Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIX
Theodore H. Fedynyshyn, Editor(s)

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