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Proceedings Paper

Audio steganography by amplitude or phase modification
Author(s): Kaliappan Gopalan; Stanley J. Wenndt; Scott F. Adams; Darren M. Haddad
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Paper Abstract

This paper presents the results of embedding short covert message utterances on a host, or cover, utterance by modifying the phase or amplitude of perceptually masked or significant regions of the host. In the first method, the absolute phase at selected, perceptually masked frequency indices was changed to fixed, covert data-dependent values. Embedded bits were retrieved at the receiver from the phase at the selected frequency indices. Tests on embedding a GSM-coded covert utterance on clean and noisy host utterances showed no noticeable difference in the stego compared to the hosts in speech quality or spectrogram. A bit error rate of 2 out of 2800 was observed for a clean host utterance while no error occurred for a noisy host. In the second method, the absolute phase of 10 or fewer perceptually significant points in the host was set in accordance with covert data. This resulted in a stego with successful data retrieval and a slightly noticeable degradation in speech quality. Modifying the amplitude of perceptually significant points caused perceptible differences in the stego even with small changes of amplitude made at five points per frame. Finally, the stego obtained by altering the amplitude at perceptually masked points showed barely noticeable differences and excellent data recovery.

Paper Details

Date Published: 20 June 2003
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 5020, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents V, (20 June 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.473138
Show Author Affiliations
Kaliappan Gopalan, Purdue Univ. Calumet (United States)
Stanley J. Wenndt, Air Force Research Lab. (United States)
Scott F. Adams, Air Force Research Lab. (United States)
Darren M. Haddad, Air Force Research Lab. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 5020:
Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents V
Edward J. Delp; Ping Wah Wong, Editor(s)

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