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Proceedings Paper

Detectors for protein crystallography: an overview of current developments in direct detection and prospects for additional capabilities
Author(s): Jacques E. Millaud
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Paper Abstract

The need for higher throughput, higher dynamic range detectors for protein crystallography is stimulating work on new detector concepts. Current detectors such as photo- cathode converters optically coupled to Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) use a two step detection process. The incoming x-ray is converted in the photo-cathode in low energy photons. These longer wavelength photons can be efficiency detected in the CCD where they create an electrical charge. The overall process is quite inefficient as few photons are generated in the primary converter and fewer are collected in the CCD. Due to the scarcity of photons per x-ray an event driven processing of the information is impossible. New approaches favors the direct detection of the incoming photon using either semiconductor detectors, the most commonly used being silicon, or gas detectors with internal amplification. The incoming photons directly create change in the detector at levels sufficient to be processed on a per event basis. All these approaches share common features: event level processing, large dynamic range, and fast readout leading to high throughput. While the primary application is in photon counting these detectors are also capable of providing multi-parameter data such as the measure of the x-ray energy and its time of occurrence. Several groups are working on the development of these detectors using different approaches to the capture of the information and its readout. The capabilities and limitations of these implementations are reviewed.

Paper Details

Date Published: 21 June 2002
PDF: 8 pages
Proc. SPIE 4626, Biomedical Nanotechnology Architectures and Applications, (21 June 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.472091
Show Author Affiliations
Jacques E. Millaud, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4626:
Biomedical Nanotechnology Architectures and Applications
Raymond P. Mariella; Michelle Palmer; Darryl J. Bornhop; Darryl J. Bornhop; Ramesh Raghavachari; Shuming Nie; Ramesh Raghavachari; Catherine J. Murphy; David A. Dunn; David A. Dunn; Raymond P. Mariella; Catherine J. Murphy; Dan V. Nicolau; Shuming Nie; Michelle Palmer; Ramesh Raghavachari, Editor(s)

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