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Proceedings Paper

Simplified pupil enlargement technique
Author(s): Bruce M. Radl
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Paper Abstract

Many viewing devices have been produced using spinning or oscillating optical elements to artificially enlarge the exit pupils of a stereomicroscope. Further advances have seen the utilization of liquid crystal diffusers so that such devices could operate without moving components. However, the implementations reported thus far have been complex and bulky. The optical system design for a simplified viewing technique is presented in this paper. A standard objective, providing the greater portion of image magnification, is used with an eyepiece which is of a liquid crystal, expanded pupil design. Current limitations in liquid crystal technology prevent eyepiece magnifications greater than 5 X. Therefore, wider fields and higher magnifications are required of the objective lens. Effects of the expansion influence resolution and brightness. Resolution is only minimally reduced as is shown in the experimental results. Brightness reduction can be held to nearly the theoretical limit, but is unavoidable in any system where the exit pupil diameter is increased beyond the eye pupil diameter. As with previous instruments, the advantage of large pupils is the relaxation of eye position constraints. This provides automatic accommodation for interocular variation among users and allows head motion over several centimeters while viewing.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 August 1991
PDF: 4 pages
Proc. SPIE 1457, Stereoscopic Displays and Applications II, (1 August 1991); doi: 10.1117/12.46319
Show Author Affiliations
Bruce M. Radl, EKTRON Applied Imaging, Inc. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1457:
Stereoscopic Displays and Applications II
John O. Merritt; Scott S. Fisher, Editor(s)

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