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Proceedings Paper

Replication by Ni electroforming approach to produce the Con-X/HXT hard x-ray mirrors
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Paper Abstract

The NASA's Constellation X-Ray Mission consists of a Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) based on large collecting area optics plus a focusing Hard X-Ray Telescope (HXT) operating between 8 and 70 keV and possibly at even higher energy. The Con-X HXT will have a focal length of 10 m and graze angles are small (0.25 - 0.1 deg). The substrates will be coated with multilayers to enhance the reflectivity but single heavy element coatings are an alternative for the small diameter substrates of the set. Twelve copies of the HXT are distributed evenly among the four Con-X spacecrafts. With multiple telescopes it is appropriate to consider electroforming, the replication process used successfully by Beppo-SAX, JET-X/SWIFT, and XMM-Newton, to produce their substrates. The important feature of the technique is that for mirrors with aperture diameters less than 40 cm also with thin substrates it is possible to achieve good angular resolution, which is important for obtaining high signal-to-noise ratios in deep observations and imaging extended sources. We review the main results of our development study devoted to proving the feasibility of the process for the Con-X/HXT, with particular stress on demonstrating, not only by theoretical considerations but also presenting an important experimental proof, that we can satisfy the severe mass constraints of the mission still maintaining good imaging capabilities.

Paper Details

Date Published: 11 March 2003
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 4851, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy, (11 March 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.461343
Show Author Affiliations
Giovanni Pareschi, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (United States)
Oberto Citterio, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (United States)
Mauro Ghigo, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (United States)
Francesco Mazzoleni, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (United States)
Paul Gorenstein, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Suzanne E. Romaine, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Giancarlo Parodi, BCV Progetti Srl (Italy)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4851:
X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy
Joachim E. Truemper; Harvey D. Tananbaum, Editor(s)

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