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Simulation study of reticle enhancement technology applications for 157-nm lithography
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Paper Abstract

The acceleration of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) is placing significant pressure on the industry's infrastructure, particularly the lithography equipment. As recently as 1997, there was no optical solution offered past the 130 nm design node. The current roadmap has the 65 nm node (reduced from 70 nm) pulled in one year to 2007. Both 248 nm and 193 nm wavelength lithography tools will be pushed to their practical resolution limits in the near term. Very high numerical aperture (NA) 193 nm exposure tools in conjunction with resolution enhancement techniques (RET) will postpone the requirement for 157 nm lithography in manufacturing. However, ICs produced at 70 nm design rules with manufacturable k 1 values will require that 157 nm wavelength lithography tools incorporate the same RETs utilized in 248nm, and 193 nm tools. These enhancements will include Alternating Phase Shifting Masks (AltPSM) and Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) on F 2 doped quartz reticle substrates. This study investigates simulation results when AltPSM is applied to sub-100 nm test patterns in 157 nm lithography in order to maintain Critical Dimension (CD) control for both nested and isolated geometries. Aerial image simulations are performed for a range of numerical apertures, chrome regulators, gate pitches and gate widths. The relative performance for phase shifted versus binary structures is also compared. Results are demonstrated in terms of aerial image contrast and process window changes. The results clearly show that a combination of high NA and RET is necessary to achieve usable process windows for 70 nm line/space structures. In addition, it is important to consider two-dimensional proximity effects for sub-100 nm gate structures.

Paper Details

Date Published: 11 March 2002
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 4562, 21st Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology, (11 March 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.458255
Show Author Affiliations
Dan L. Schurz, Ultratech Stepper, Inc. (United States)
Warren W. Flack, Ultratech Stepper, Inc. (United States)
Linard Karklin, Numerical Technologies, Inc. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4562:
21st Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology
Giang T. Dao; Brian J. Grenon, Editor(s)

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