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Proceedings Paper

X-ray spectral measurements of a dense plasma focus
Author(s): Robert R. Whitlock; Charles M. Dozier; Daniel A. Newman; Rodney A. Petr; Jay Freshman; David W. Hoey; John Heaton
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Paper Abstract

Absolute intensities of spectra in a dense-plasma-focus (DPF) source have been recorded and analyzed. This DPF source has been identified as one of the more promising sources for X-ray lithography. The source, developed by Science Research Laboratory, Inc., is currently undergoing testing and further development at BAE Systems, Inc. The DPF operates at 60 Hz and produces an average output pulse of ~5 J of X rays into 4π steradians in a continuous operation mode. In all runs, there was an initial number of pulses, typically between 30 to 40, during which the X-ray output increased and the DPF appeared to be undergoing a conditioning process, and after which a "steady-state" mode was achieved where the average X-ray power was relatively constant. Each spectral run was exposed to ~600 J of output, as measured by the PIN. The X-ray spectral region between 0.8 and 3 keV was recorded on Kodak DEF film in a potassium acid phthalate (KAP) convex curved-crystal spectrograph. The source emits neon line radiation from Ne IX and Ne X ionization stages in the 900 to 1300 eV region, suitable for lithographic exposures of photoresist. Two helium-like neon lines contribute more than 50% of the total energy. From continuum shape, plasma temperatures were found to be approximately 170-200 eV. The absolute, integrated spectral outputs were verified to within 30% by comparison with measurements by a PIN detector and a radiachromic X-ray dosimeter.

Paper Details

Date Published: 23 October 2002
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 4781, Advances in Laboratory-Based X-Ray Sources and Optics III, (23 October 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.456515
Show Author Affiliations
Robert R. Whitlock, Naval Research Lab. (United States)
Charles M. Dozier, Geo-Centers, Inc. (United States)
Daniel A. Newman, Geo-Centers, Inc. (United States)
Rodney A. Petr, Science Research Lab., Inc. (United States)
Jay Freshman, Science Research Lab., Inc. (United States)
David W. Hoey, BAE Systems (United States)
John Heaton, BAE Systems (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4781:
Advances in Laboratory-Based X-Ray Sources and Optics III
Ali M. Khounsary; Carolyn A. MacDonald, Editor(s)

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