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Proceedings Paper

Using the ACR/NEMA standard with TCP/IP and Ethernet
Author(s): William J. Chimiak; Rodney C. Williams
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Paper Abstract

There is a need for a consolidated picture archival and communications system (PACS) in hospitals. At the Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University (BGSM), the authors are enhancing the ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol using UNIX sockets and TCP/IP to greatly improve connectivity. Initially, nuclear medicine studies using gamma cameras are to be sent to PACS. The ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol provides the functionality of the upper three layers of the open system interconnection (OSI) model in this implementation. The images, imaging equipment information, and patient information are then sent in ACR/NEMA format to a software socket. From there it is handed to the TCP/IP protocol, which provides the transport and network service. TCP/IP, in turn, uses the services of IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) to complete the connectivity. The advantage of this implementation is threefold: (1) Only one I/O port is consumed by numerous nuclear medicine cameras, instead of a physical port for each camera. (2) Standard protocols are used which maximize interoperability with ACR/NEMA compliant PACSs. (3) The use of sockets allows a migration path to the transport and networking services of OSIs TP4 and connectionless network service as well as the high-performance protocol being considered by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standards Organization (ISO) -- the Xpress Transfer Protocol (XTP). The use of sockets also gives access to ANSI's Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) as well as other high-speed network standards.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 July 1991
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 1446, Medical Imaging V: PACS Design and Evaluation, (1 July 1991); doi: 10.1117/12.45263
Show Author Affiliations
William J. Chimiak, Bowman Gray School of Medicine/Wake Forest Univ. (United States)
Rodney C. Williams, Bowman Gray School of Medicine/Wake Forest Univ. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1446:
Medical Imaging V: PACS Design and Evaluation

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