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Proceedings Paper

Object-based Image Compression
Author(s): Mark S. Schmalz
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Paper Abstract

Image compression frequently supports reduced storage requirement in a computer system, as well as enhancement of effective channel bandwidth in a communication system, by decreasing the source bit rate through reduction of source redundancy. The majority of image compression techniques emphasize pixel-level operations, such as matching rectangular or elliptical sampling blocks taken from the source data stream, with exemplars stored in a database (e.g., a codebook in vector quantization or VQ). Alternatively, one can represent a source block via transformation, coefficient quantization, and selection of coefficients deemed significant for source content approximation in the decompressed image. This approach, called transform coding (TC), has predominated for several decades in the signal and image processing communities. A further technique that has been employed is the deduction of affine relationships from source properties such as local self-similarity, which supports the construction of adaptive codebooks in a self-VQ paradigm that has been called iterated function systems (IFS). Although VQ, TC, and IFS based compression algorithms have enjoyed varying levels of success for different types of applications, bit rate requirements, and image quality constraints, few of these algorithms examine the higher-level spatial structure of an image, and fewer still exploit this structure to enhance compression ratio. In this paper, we discuss a fourth type of compression algorithm, called object-based compression, which is based on research in joint segmentaton and compression, as well as previous research in the extraction of sketch-like representations from digital imagery. Here, large image regions that correspond to contiguous recognizeable objects or parts of objects are segmented from the source, then represented compactly in the compressed image. Segmentation is facilitated by source properties such as size, shape, texture, statistical properties, and spectral signature. In particular, discussion addresses issues such as efficient boundary representation, variance assessment and representation, as well as a texture classification and replacement algorithms that can decrease compression overhead and increase reconstruction fidelity in the decompressed image. Contextual extraction of motion patterns in digital video sequences, using a frequency-domain pattern recognition technique based on interframe correlation, is described in a companion paper. This technique can also be extended to multidimensional image domains, to support joint spectral, spatial, and temporal compression.

Paper Details

Date Published: 30 January 2003
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 4793, Mathematics of Data/Image Coding, Compression, and Encryption V, with Applications, (30 January 2003); doi: 10.1117/12.452385
Show Author Affiliations
Mark S. Schmalz, Univ. of Florida (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4793:
Mathematics of Data/Image Coding, Compression, and Encryption V, with Applications
Mark S. Schmalz, Editor(s)

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