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Proceedings Paper

Progress in the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio zone plates by soft x-ray lithography
Author(s): Ralu Divan; Derrick C. Mancini; Nicolai A. Moldovan; Barry P. Lai; Lahsen Assoufid; Quinn J. Leonard; Franco Cerrina
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Paper Abstract

Fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for the hard x-ray spectral region combines the challenge of high lateral resolution (~100 nm) with a large thickness requirement for the phase-shifting material (0.5-3 μm). For achieving a high resolution, the initial mask was fabricated by e-beam lithography and gold electroforming. To prevent the collapse of the structures between the developing and electroforming processes, drying was completely eliminated. Fabrication errors, such as nonuniform gold electroplating and collapse of structures, were analyzed and systematically eliminated. We optimized the exposure and developing processes for 950k and 2200k polymethylmethacrylate of different thicknesses and various adhesion promoters. We discuss the effects of these fabrication steps on the zone plate's resolution and aspect ratio. Fresnel zone plates with 110 nm outermost zone width, 150 μm diameter, and 1.3 μm gold thickness were fabricated. Preliminary evaluation of the FZPs was done by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The FZP focusing performance was characterized at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

Paper Details

Date Published: 21 November 2002
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 4783, Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics, (21 November 2002); doi: 10.1117/12.451019
Show Author Affiliations
Ralu Divan, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
Derrick C. Mancini, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
Nicolai A. Moldovan, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
Barry P. Lai, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
Lahsen Assoufid, Argonne National Lab. (United States)
Quinn J. Leonard, Univ. of Wisconsin/Madison (United States)
Franco Cerrina, Univ. of Wisconsin/Madison (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4783:
Design and Microfabrication of Novel X-Ray Optics
Derrick C. Mancini, Editor(s)

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