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Proceedings Paper

Tunable diffractive optical elements for hard x-rays
Author(s): Christian David; Bernd Noehammer; Eric Ziegler; Olivier Hignette
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Paper Abstract

We describe the fabrication and testing of a novel type of tunable transmission hard x-ray optics. The diffractive elements are generated by electron beam lithography and chemical wet etching of <110> oriented silicon substrates. Structures with widths down to 100 nm and extreme aspect ratios were obtained using this method. By tilting the lenses with respect to the x-ray beam, the effective path through the phase shifting structures can be varied. This makes it possible to optimize the diffraction efficiency for a wide range of photon energies, and to obtain effective aspect ratios not accessible with untilted optics. The diffraction efficiency of a Fresnel lens was measured for various energies between 8 keV and 29 keV. Values close to the theoretical limit (approx. 35%) were obtained. The described technique provides focusing in one direction only. For two-dimensional focusing, two linear lenses with different focal lengths and orthogonal orientations can be placed along the optical axis. Depending on the coherence properties of the source, such an arrangement can improve the resolution and flux compared to a single circular zone plate. The wet etching technique is also applied to the fabrication of linear gratings with pseudo-random pitch, which will be used as one-dimensional decoherers to adapt the coherence of a synchrotron beam in a defined way. Linear gratings with uniform line density can be used as beam splitters for applications such as holography or interferometry.

Paper Details

Date Published: 13 December 2001
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 4499, X-Ray Micro- and Nano-Focusing: Applications and Techniques II, (13 December 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.450226
Show Author Affiliations
Christian David, Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland)
Bernd Noehammer, Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland)
Eric Ziegler, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (France)
Olivier Hignette, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (France)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4499:
X-Ray Micro- and Nano-Focusing: Applications and Techniques II
Ian McNulty, Editor(s)

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