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Proceedings Paper

Contrast-agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: early detection of neoplastic lesions of the CNS
Author(s): Mark J. Carvlin; Louis Rosa; Sunder S. Rajan; John Francisco
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Paper Abstract

Even though the intrinsic soft tissue contrast sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affords excellent visualization of anatomic detail, certain pathologic processes may be diagnosed earlier with the administration of a contrast-enhancing agent. At present there is one agent, gadopentetate dimeglumine, GdDTPA, that has received FDA approval for use in the MR scanning of the brain and spine in human patients. This paramagnetic chelate distributes throughout the extracellular fluid space as dictated by capillary permeability so that abnormal vascularity and sites of blood-CNS barrier breakdown are highlighted. Primary neoplastic disease, metastases, meningeal extension, residual and recurrent tumor have been found to be better distinguished in MR images acquired after administration of GdDTPA. Routine administration of GdDTPA for cranial imaging has resulted in the discovery of otherwise occult lesions in approximately 3 of patients. Although the clinical utility and high therapeutic safety index of the first approved magnetic resonance contrast agent, GdDTPA, have been well established, other contrast agents, having different physical, chemical and biological properties, may offer improved sensitivity and bio-specificity. Agents currently being evaluated in vivo include: low osmolal paramagnetic chelates, superparamagnetic particles, metalloporphyrins, liposome encapsulated agents, perfluorocarbons, intravascular macromolecular chelate complexes and labeled monoclonal antibodies. Concurrent with advances in the development of new compounds, innovations in scanning hardware, pulse sequence design and image post-processing are helping to extend the efficacy of contrast media. Additional clinical experience will indicate which contrast agents and which MR techniques can best facilitate the early detection of specific neoplastic lesions.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 June 1991
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 1426, Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Early Diagnosis: Mechanisms and Techniques, (1 June 1991); doi: 10.1117/12.44044
Show Author Affiliations
Mark J. Carvlin, Georgetown Univ. Hospital (United States)
Louis Rosa, Georgetown Univ. Hospital (United States)
Sunder S. Rajan, Georgetown Univ. Hospital (United States)
John Francisco, Georgetown Univ. Hospital (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1426:
Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Early Diagnosis: Mechanisms and Techniques
Thomas J. Dougherty, Editor(s)

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