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Proceedings Paper

Biosensor, ELISA, and frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (FETAX) analysis of water associated with frog malformations in Minnesota
Author(s): Eric A. E. Garber; Judith L. Erb; James G. Downward; Eric M. Priuska; James L. Wittliff; Wenke Feng; Joseph Magner; Gerald L. Larsen
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Paper Abstract

Between 1995 and 1997 over 62% of the counties in Minnesota reported the presence of malformed frogs. While most sites have recently shown a decline in malformed frog populations, one site in northeastern Minnesota with no prior history of malformed frogs was recently discovered to contain > 67% malformed Rana pipiens (northern leopard frogs). As part of an effort to study the presence of hormonally active agents in fresh water sources, water samples were collected from lakes in Minnesota containing malformed frogs and analyzed for the presence of biologically active compounds using a novel evanescent field fluorometric biosensor and the frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (FETAX) bioassay. The waveguide based biosensor developed by ThreeFold Sensors (TFS biosensor, Ann Arbor, MI) monitors the interaction between free human ER-? and an estrogen immobilized on a sensor fiber. Inhibition of the interaction reflects the presence of estrogenic compounds. The FETAX bioassay is a developmental assay, which measures teratogenicity, mortality, and inhibition of growth during the first 96 hours of organogenesis and thereby provides a universal screen for endocrine disruptors. TFS biosensor and FETAX screening of the water samples suggest a relationship between estrogenic activity, mineral supplementation, and the occurrence of malformed frogs.

Paper Details

Date Published: 13 March 2001
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 4206, Photonic Detection and Intervention Technologies for Safe Food, (13 March 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.418737
Show Author Affiliations
Eric A. E. Garber, U.S. Department of Agriculture (United States)
Judith L. Erb, ThreeFold Sensors (United States)
James G. Downward, ThreeFold Sensors (United States)
Eric M. Priuska, ThreeFold Sensors (United States)
James L. Wittliff, Univ. of Louisville (United States)
Wenke Feng, Univ. of Louisville (United States)
Joseph Magner, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (United States)
Gerald L. Larsen, U.S. Department of Agriculture (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4206:
Photonic Detection and Intervention Technologies for Safe Food
Yud-Ren Chen; Shu-I Tu, Editor(s)

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