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Proceedings Paper

Ultra-high vacuum reveals interface dependent and impurity-gas dependent charge injection in organic light-emitting diodes
Author(s): Michael Kiy; Iris Gamboni-Bruengger; Ivan Biaggio; Peter Guenter
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Paper Abstract

We present a complete characterization of Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) structures performed in an ultra-pure Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) environment and under controlled influence of oxygen and atmospheric gases. We fabricated and characterized standard NPB/Alq3 devices with an Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode and a magnesium cathode in an UHV system. With this system we are able to study the injection properties of very clean, controllable interfaces in the absence of any impurity gas. We found that the threshold voltage for OLED operation always increased after exposure to any atmospheric gas, an indication of deteriorated injection properties. However, the luminescence efficiency can become higher after exposure to impurity gases. Without contact to air the OLED do not degrade with appearance of so called 'black spots.' To investigate the intrinsic stability of the OLEDs in ultra-high vacuum we performed a realtime observation on the surface of a 35 nm thin magnesium cathode with Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS). We found that even with a 35 nm thin magnesium-cathode, the underlying organic layer never appeared at the surface also after hours of operation in the ultra-pure conditions. The only sign of deterioration at the cathode is a slow oxidation of the magnesium surface. Thus, OLEDs with semitransparent cathodes are stable if the are operated under ultra-high vacuum conditions.

Paper Details

Date Published: 2 February 2001
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 4105, Organic Light-Emitting Materials and Devices IV, (2 February 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.416906
Show Author Affiliations
Michael Kiy, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zuerich (Switzerland)
Iris Gamboni-Bruengger, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zuerich (Switzerland)
Ivan Biaggio, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zuerich (Switzerland)
Peter Guenter, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zuerich (Switzerland)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4105:
Organic Light-Emitting Materials and Devices IV
Zakya H. Kafafi, Editor(s)

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