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Proceedings Paper

Mechanism of single-layer 193-nm dissolution inhibition resist
Author(s): Zhenglin Yan; Francis M. Houlihan; Elsa Reichmanis; Omkaram Nalamasu; Arnost Reiser; Gary Dabbagh; Richard S. Hutton; Dan Osei; Jose Sousa; Kevin J. Bolan
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Paper Abstract

We have found that the progress of developer base into films of terpolymers of norbornene (NB)-maleic anhydride (MA) and acrylic acid (AA) is a percolation process with a critical site concentration of x(c) equals 0.084 which suggests that every acrylic acid site in the terpolymer of norbornene-maleic anhydride-acrylic acid can make 12 monomer units of the polymer water compatible. In practice these systems are being used with various tert-butyl esters of cholic acid as dissolution inhibitors. The cholates differ very much in their dissolution inhibition factors (lowest t-butyl cholate (1.3) to highest t-butyl lithocholate glutarate dimer (7.4). The change in these factors corrected for molarity follow the hydrophobic character of the dissolution as measured by log(p). A quick screening method has also been established to evaluate dissolution inhibitors based on our observation that the cloud point (the volume % acetone in a water/acetone which gives persistent cloudiness) parallels the dissolution inhibiting power as measured by the dissolution inhibition factor. For dissolution promotion, optimal results are obtained with t-butyl 1,3,5-cyclohexanetricarboxylate (f equals -6.3) and poorest results with t-butyl lithocholate (f equals -2.8); this appears to track with the number of carboxyl groups and the hydrophobicity of the carboxylic acids. The Rmax found for resist formulations tracks well with these findings. Another factor in determining the ultimate achievable contrast is the degree of acidolytic deprotection achieved by the material. It appears that acidolyticaly cleaveable carboxylate esters with a higher concentration of electron withdrawing groups such as t-butyl 1,3,5-cyclohexanetricarboxylate are more effective.

Paper Details

Date Published: 23 June 2000
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 3999, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVII, (23 June 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.388275
Show Author Affiliations
Zhenglin Yan, Polytechnic Univ. (United States)
Francis M. Houlihan, Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs. (United States)
Elsa Reichmanis, Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs. (United States)
Omkaram Nalamasu, Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs. (United States)
Arnost Reiser, Polytechnic Univ. (United States)
Gary Dabbagh, Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs. (United States)
Richard S. Hutton, Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs. (United States)
Dan Osei, Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs. (United States)
Jose Sousa, Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs. (United States)
Kevin J. Bolan, Lucent Technologies/Bell Labs. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3999:
Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVII
Francis M. Houlihan, Editor(s)

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