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Proceedings Paper

Semifragile watermarking for authenticating JPEG visual content
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Paper Abstract

In this paper, we propose a semi-fragile watermarking technique that accepts JPEG lossy compression on the watermarked image to a pre-determined quality factor, and rejects malicious attacks. The authenticator can identify the positions of corrupted blocks, and recover them with approximation of the original ones. In addition to JPEG compression, adjustments of the brightness of the image within reasonable ranges, are also acceptable using the proposed authenticator. The security of the proposed method is achieved by using the secret block mapping function which controls the signature generating/embedding processes. Our authenticator is based on two invariant properties of DCT coefficients before and after JPEG compressions. They are deterministic so that no probabilistic decision is needed in the system. The first property shows that if we modify a DCT coefficient to an integral multiple of a quantization step, which is larger than the steps used in later JPEG compressions, then this coefficient can be exactly reconstructed after later acceptable JPEG compression. The second one is the invariant relationships between two coefficients in a block pair before and after JPEG compression. Therefore, we can use the second property to generate authentication signature, and use the first property to embed it as watermarks. There is no perceptible degradation between the watermarked image and the original. In additional to authentication signatures, we can also embed the recovery bits for recovering approximate pixel values in corrupted areas. Our authenticator utilizes the compressed bitstream, and thus avoids rounding errors in reconstructing DCT coefficients. Experimental results showed the effectiveness of this system. The system also guaranies no false alarms, i.e., no acceptable JPEG compression is rejected.

Paper Details

Date Published: 9 May 2000
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 3971, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents II, (9 May 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.384968
Show Author Affiliations
Ching-Yung Lin, Columbia Univ. (United States)
Shih-Fu Chang, Columbia Univ. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3971:
Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents II
Ping Wah Wong; Edward J. Delp, Editor(s)

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