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Proceedings Paper

GPR radiation pattern effects on 3D Kirchhoff array imaging
Author(s): Mark L. Moran; Steven A. Arcone; Roy J. Greenfield
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Paper Abstract

A variety of 2-D acoustic migration algorithms are routinely applied to ground penetrating radar (GPR) array data to form images of reflecting surfaces. In a few instances 3-D migration has been performed. We demonstrate the GPR dipole radiation effects on imaging planar reflection surfaces under a 3-D acoustic Kirchhoff imaging condition. This is accomplished by analyzing migration results using synthetic GPR array data generated with a new diffraction integration method that includes interfacial dipole radiation patterns. The impact of the GPR radiation pattern is demonstrated on migration images by considering three antennas types (isotropic, x-, and y-dipoles). For all the results discussed, we use the relative dielectric permittivity for ice, and monostatic transmitter and receiver geometry. We find that an array having a 2.5:1 length-to-width (x:y) ratio and populated with isotropic elements, has a directivity of 4.8. The same array using x-oriented antenna elements has a directivity of 11; with y-oriented elements the directivity is 7. The dipole radiation pattern dominates the array factor. In migration results, when the array factor is aligned with the H-plane dipole pattern, surfaces as steep as 45 degrees are readily imaged. Conversely, when the array factor is aligned with the E-plane pattern, reflectors with dips as low as 20 degrees are difficult to image. These results stress that correct dipole orientation with-in the imaging array is vital for achieving optimal reflector images using migration techniques.

Paper Details

Date Published: 27 April 2000
PDF: 5 pages
Proc. SPIE 4084, Eighth International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, (27 April 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.383563
Show Author Affiliations
Mark L. Moran, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab. (United States)
Steven A. Arcone, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab. (United States)
Roy J. Greenfield, The Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4084:
Eighth International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar
David A. Noon; Glen F. Stickley; Dennis Longstaff, Editor(s)

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