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Proceedings Paper

Photodynamic pathogen inactivation in red cell concentrates with the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4
Author(s): Ehud Ben-Hur; Wai-Shun Chan; Zachary Yim; Maria M. Zuk; Vinay Dayal; Nathan Roth; Eli Heldman; A. Lazlo; C. R. Valeri; Bernard Horowitz
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Paper Abstract

The silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4, a photosensitizer activated with red light, has been studied for pathogen inactivation in red blood cell concentrates (RBCC). Pc 4 targets the envelope of pathogenic viruses such as HIV. To protect RBC during the process two main approaches are used: 1) Inclusion of quenches of reactive oxygen species produced during treatment. Tocopherol succinate was found to be most effective for this purpose. 2) Formulation of Pc 4, a lipophilic compound, in liposomes that reduce its binding to RBC but not to viruses. As a light source we used a light emitting diode array emitting at 660-680 nm. An efficient mixing device ensures homogeneous light exposure during treatment of intact RBCC. Treatment of RBCC with 5 (mu) M Pc 4 a d light results in the inactivation of >= 5.5 log10 HIV, >= 6.6 log10 VSV, and >= 5 log10 of PRV and BVDV. Parasites that can be transmitted by blood transfusion are even more sensitive than viruses. Following treatment, RBCC can be stored for 28 days at 4 degrees C with hemolysis below 1 percent. Baboon RBC circulate with an acceptable 24 hour recovery and half-life. Genetic toxicological studies of Pc 4 with or without light exposure are negative. We conclude that a process using Pc 4 and red light can potentially reduce the risk of transmitting pathogens in RBCC used for transfusion.

Paper Details

Date Published: 29 March 2000
PDF: 6 pages
Proc. SPIE 3909, Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy IX, (29 March 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.379877
Show Author Affiliations
Ehud Ben-Hur, V. I. Technologies (United States)
Wai-Shun Chan, V. I. Technologies (United States)
Zachary Yim, V. I. Technologies (United States)
Maria M. Zuk, V. I. Technologies (United States)
Vinay Dayal, V. I. Technologies (United States)
Nathan Roth, V. I. Technologies (United States)
Eli Heldman, V. I. Technologies (United States)
A. Lazlo, V. I. Technologies (United States)
C. R. Valeri, Naval Blood Research Lab. (United States)
Bernard Horowitz, V. I. Technologies (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3909:
Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy IX
Thomas J. Dougherty, Editor(s)

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