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Proceedings Paper

Localized moderate-temperature Er3+ doping into optical crystals
Author(s): Pavla Nekvindova; Jarmila Spirkova-Hradilova; Josef Schroefel; Martin Slunecko; Vratislav Perina; Jiri Vacik
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Paper Abstract

Possibility of localized doping by Er3+ diffusion at moderate (less than 500 degree(s)C) temperature is demonstrated for lithium niobate and sapphire. The doping is achieved by immersing the substrate wafers into reaction melt containing small amounts of erbium salt. A crucial point of the presented technology is a crystallographic orientation of the used wafers. Though in the Z- and Y-cuts of lithium niobate the content of incorporated erbium did not exceed the concentration achieved using standard high temperature (or high energy) approaches, lithium niobate X-cuts contained up to 10 weight % of erbium. Similar results were obtained also for the corresponding cuts of sapphire. This strong anisotropy of the doping is explained on the basis of crystal structure of the particular cuts. The in-diffused layers in all the cuts are rather shallow, however, erbium can be diffused deeper into the substrates by post-diffusion annealing in air. The moderate-temperature approach enabled us to fabricate APE waveguides in erbium doped lithium niobate without deteriorating the samples surfaces. The samples were characterized by RBS, SEM, NDP and mode spectroscopy.

Paper Details

Date Published: 15 December 1999
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 3858, Advanced Materials and Optical Systems for Chemical and Biological Detection, (15 December 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.372916
Show Author Affiliations
Pavla Nekvindova, Institute of Chemical Technology (Czech Republic)
Jarmila Spirkova-Hradilova, Institute of Chemical Technology (Czech Republic)
Josef Schroefel, Czech Technical Univ. (Czech Republic)
Martin Slunecko, Institute of Chemical Technology (Czech Republic)
Vratislav Perina, Nuclear Physics Institute (Czech Republic)
Jiri Vacik, Nuclear Physics Institute (Czech Republic)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3858:
Advanced Materials and Optical Systems for Chemical and Biological Detection
Mahmoud Fallahi; Basil I. Swanson, Editor(s)

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