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Proceedings Paper

Optical extension at the 193-nm wavelength
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Paper Abstract

Lithography at 193nm is the first optical lithography technique that will be introduced for manufacturing of technology levels. where the required dimensions are smaller than the actual wavelength. This paper explores several techniques to extend 193nm to low k1 lithography. Most attention is given to binary mask solution in at 130nm dimensions, where k1 is 0.4. Various strong and Gaussian quadrupole illuminators were designed, manufactured and tested for this application. Strong quadrupoles show that largest DOF improvements. The drawback however, is that these strong quadrupoles are very duty cycle and dimensions specific, resulting in large proximity biases between different duty cycles. Due to their design, Gaussian quadrupoles sample much wider frequency ranges, resulting in less duty cycles specific DOF improvements and less proximity basis. At sub-130nm dimensions, strong phase shift masks provide significant latitude improvements, when compared to binary masks with quadrupole illumination. However, differences in dose to size for different duty cycles were up to 25 percent. For definition of contact holes, linewidth biasing through silylation, a key feature of the CARL bi-layer resist approach, demonstrated significant DOF latitude improvements compared to SLR at 140nm and 160nm contact holes.

Paper Details

Date Published: 26 July 1999
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 3679, Optical Microlithography XII, (26 July 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.354343
Show Author Affiliations
Peter Zandbergen, International SEMATECH (United States)
Martin McCallum, International SEMATECH (United States)
Gilles R. Amblard, International SEMATECH (United States)
Wolf-Dieter Domke, International SEMATECH (Germany)
Bruce W. Smith, Rochester Institute of Technology (United States)
Lena Zavyalova, Rochester Institute of Technology (United States)
John S. Petersen, International SEMATECH and Petersen Advanced Lithography (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3679:
Optical Microlithography XII
Luc Van den Hove, Editor(s)

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