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Proceedings Paper

Internal temperature measurements in response to cryogen spray cooling of a skin phantom
Author(s): Jorge H. Torres; Bahman Anvari; B. Samuel Tanenbaum; Thomas E. Milner; Jason C. Yu; J. Stuart Nelson
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Paper Abstract

Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) can protect the epidermis from non-specific thermal injury during laser treatment of port wine stains and other hypervascular cutaneous malformations. Knowledge of skin internal temperatures in response to CSC is essential for optimization of this technique. We used an epoxy resin compound to construct a kind phantom and measured its internal temperatures in response to cooling with different cryogens at various spurt durations, spraying distances, and ambient humidity levels. The measured temperature distributions during CSC were fitted by a mathematical model based on thermal diffusion theory. For spurt durations up to 100 ms, temperature reduction within the phantom remained confined to the upper 200 μm, and was affected by spraying distance. Depending on the cryogen used, temperature reductions up to 45°C could be measured 20 μm below the surface at the end of a 100 ms spurt. However, the cryogen film temperature on the epoxy resin surface was up to 35°C lower, indicating lack of perfect thermal contact at the cryogen film-phantom interface. Theoretical predictions were within 10% of measured temperatures. Ice formation occurred following termination of the spurt and was influenced by the ambient humidity level.

Paper Details

Date Published: 22 June 1999
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 3590, Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems IX, (22 June 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.350956
Show Author Affiliations
Jorge H. Torres, Rice Univ. (United States)
Bahman Anvari, Rice Univ. (United States)
B. Samuel Tanenbaum, Harvey Mudd College (United States)
Thomas E. Milner, Univ. of Texas/Austin (United States)
Jason C. Yu, Harvey Mudd College (United States)
J. Stuart Nelson, Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3590:
Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems IX
Kenton W. Gregory; R. Rox Anderson; David S. Robinson; Reza S. Malek; Lou Reinisch; Darryl J. Bornhop; Kenneth Eugene Bartels; Hans-Dieter Reidenbach; Lloyd P. Tate; C. Gaelyn Garrett; Eugene A. Trowers; Aaron P. Perlmutter; Kenneth Eugene Bartels; Lawrence S. Bass; Darryl J. Bornhop; C. Gaelyn Garrett; Kenton W. Gregory; Nikiforos Kollias; Harvey Lui; Reza S. Malek; Aaron P. Perlmutter; Hans-Dieter Reidenbach; Lou Reinisch; David S. Robinson; Lloyd P. Tate; Eugene A. Trowers, Editor(s)

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