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Proceedings Paper

Dynamic cooling during laser skin welding
Author(s): Nathaniel M. Fried; Joseph T. Walsh
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Paper Abstract

Cryogen spray cooling of the tissue surface was investigated for laser welding applications. Benefits include reduced thermal damage to the papillary dermis and reduced operation time. Two-cm-long, full-thickness incisions were made on the backs of guinea pigs, in vivo. India ink was used as an absorber and clamps were used to appose the incision edges. Continuous-wave, 1.06-μm, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing ~100 ms pulses. A 4-mm-diameter laser spot was used with a constant power of 16 W. The total operation time was 60 or 120 s. Cryogen was delivered in spurt durations of 20, 60, or 100 ms, with 2 or 4 s between spurts. The working distance was approximately 12 cm, and the spray covered an area of about 5.0 x 5.0 cm. Control welds were irradiated for 20, 40, or 60 s. Total operation times were reduced from 10 min without dynamic cooling to 1 min with dynamic cooling. Optimal tensile strength was 1.7 ± 0.7 kg/cm2, comparible to stengths of 2.1 ± 0.7 kg/cm2 reported in previous studies without cryogen cooling (p>0.25). Thermal damage in the papillary dermis measured 320 ± 80 μm.

Paper Details

Date Published: 22 June 1999
PDF: 6 pages
Proc. SPIE 3590, Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems IX, (22 June 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.350954
Show Author Affiliations
Nathaniel M. Fried, Johns Hopkins Univ. and Northwestern Univ. (United States)
Joseph T. Walsh, Northwestern Univ. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3590:
Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems IX
Kenton W. Gregory; R. Rox Anderson; Kenneth Eugene Bartels; Lawrence S. Bass; Darryl J. Bornhop; C. Gaelyn Garrett; Kenton W. Gregory; Nikiforos Kollias; Harvey Lui; Reza S. Malek; Aaron P. Perlmutter; Hans-Dieter Reidenbach; Lou Reinisch; David S. Robinson; Lloyd P. Tate; Eugene A. Trowers; David S. Robinson; Hans-Dieter Reidenbach; Reza S. Malek; Aaron P. Perlmutter; Lou Reinisch; C. Gaelyn Garrett; Darryl J. Bornhop; Eugene A. Trowers; Kenneth Eugene Bartels; Lloyd P. Tate, Editor(s)

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