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Proceedings Paper

Freezing effect on bread appearance evaluated by digital imaging
Author(s): Inna Y. Zayas
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Paper Abstract

In marketing channels, bread is sometimes delivered in a frozen sate for distribution. Changes occur in physical dimensions, crumb grain and appearance of slices. Ten loaves, twelve bread slices per loaf were scanned for digital image analysis and then frozen in a commercial refrigerator. The bread slices were stored for four weeks scanned again, permitted to thaw and scanned a third time. Image features were extracted, to determine shape, size and image texture of the slices. Different thresholds of grey levels were set to detect changes that occurred in crumb, images were binarized at these settings. The number of pixels falling into these gray level settings were determined for each slice. Image texture features of subimages of each slice were calculated to quantify slice crumb grain. The image features of the slice size showed shrinking of bread slices, as a results of freezing and storage, although shape of slices did not change markedly. Visible crumb texture changes occurred and these changes were depicted by changes in image texture features. Image texture features showed that slice crumb changed differently at the center of a slice compared to a peripheral area close to the crust. Image texture and slice features were sufficient for discrimination of slices before and after freezing and after thawing.

Paper Details

Date Published: 14 January 1999
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 3543, Precision Agriculture and Biological Quality, (14 January 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.336875
Show Author Affiliations
Inna Y. Zayas, USDA Agricultural Research Service (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3543:
Precision Agriculture and Biological Quality
George E. Meyer; James A. DeShazer, Editor(s)

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