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Proceedings Paper

AIRWATCH: the fast detector
Author(s): Anna Gregorio; Roberto Stalio; Ezio Alippi; Giovanni Bonanno; Luciano Bosisio; Pietro Bruno; Rosario Cosentino; Rosario Di Benedetto; Flavio Fontanelli; Gianrossano Giannini; Valerio Gracco; Anna Lenti; Alessandro Petrolini; Mario Sannino; Livio Scarsi; Salvatore Scuderi; Paolo Trampus; Andrea Vacchi
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Paper Abstract

The discovery of the extreme energy cosmic rays (EERC) with energy greater than 1020 eV has opened a new research branch of astrophysics on both observational and interpretative point of views. Together with the EECR one has also to consider the neutrino component which, independently on its primary or secondary origin, can reach comparable energies. These particles can be detected through the giant showers (EAS) produced in the Earth atmosphere and the induced fluorescent molecular nitrogen emission. Observing the EECR 'signals' is very difficult; we need forefront technology or new developments. The main reason is that their flux is very weak, typically of the order of a few events/year/1000 km2 per EECR of E approximately equals 1020 eV. The proposed Airwatch mission, base don a single orbiting telescope which can measure both intensity and direction of the EAS, impose new concepts for the detectors; single photon sensitivity, fast response of the order of few microseconds with sampling times of tenths of nanoseconds, low noise and good S/N ratio, large area, adaptability to a curved surface. Fortunately the spatial resolution requirements are somehow relaxed. The peculiar characteristics of this application are such that no available detectors satisfies completely the requirements. Therefore the final detector has to be the result of a R and D program dedicated to the specific problem. In this paper we survey a number of possible detectors and identify their characteristics versus the Airwatch mission requirements.

Paper Details

Date Published: 10 November 1998
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 3445, EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, (10 November 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.330309
Show Author Affiliations
Anna Gregorio, Ctr. for Advanced Research in Space Optics (Italy)
Roberto Stalio, Ctr. for Advanced Research in Space Optics (Italy) and Univ. di Trieste (Italy)
Ezio Alippi, Laben SpA (Italy)
Giovanni Bonanno, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy)
Luciano Bosisio, Univ. di Trieste (Italy)
Pietro Bruno, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy)
Rosario Cosentino, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy)
Rosario Di Benedetto, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy)
Flavio Fontanelli, Univ. di Genova (Italy) and INFN Genova (Italy)
Gianrossano Giannini, Univ. di Trieste (France)
Valerio Gracco, Univ. di Genova (Italy) and INFN Genova (Italy)
Anna Lenti, Laben SpA (Italy)
Alessandro Petrolini, Univ. di Genova (Italy) and INFN Genova (Italy)
Mario Sannino, Univ. di Genova (Italy) and INFN Genova (Italy)
Livio Scarsi, Istituto di Fisica Cosmica e Informatica (Italy)
Salvatore Scuderi, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy)
Paolo Trampus, Ctr. for Advanced Research in Space Optics (Italy)
Andrea Vacchi, INFN Trieste (Italy)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3445:
EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX
Oswald H. W. Siegmund; Mark A. Gummin, Editor(s)

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