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Proceedings Paper

Performance of a 4096-pixel photon counting chip
Author(s): Maria Giuseppina Bisogni; M. Campbell; M. Conti; Pasquale Delogu; Maria Evelina Fantacci; Erik H. M. Heijne; Paolo Maestro; G. Magistrati; V. M. Marzulli; G. Meddeler; Bettina Mikulec; Elena Pernigotti; Valeria Rosso; C. Schwarz; W. Snoeys; Simone Stumbo; J. Watt
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Paper Abstract

A 4096 pixel Photon Counting Chip (PCC) has been developed and tested. It is aimed primarily at medical imaging although it can be used for other applications involving particle counting. The readout chip consists of a matrix of 64 by 64 identical square pixels, whose side measures 170 micrometers and is bump-bonded to a similar matrix of GaAs or Si pixel diodes covering a sensitive area of 1.18 cm2. The electronics in each cell comprises a preamplifier, a discriminator with variable threshold and a 3-bit threshold tune as well as a 15-bit counter. Each pixel can be individually addressed for electrical test or masked during acquisition. A shutter allows for switching between the counting and readout modes and the use of static logic in the counter enables long data taking periods. Electrical test of the chip have shown a maximum counting and readout modes and the use of static logic in the counter enables long data taking periods. Electrical test of the chip have shown a maximum counting rate of up to 2 MHz in each pixel. The minimum reachable threshold is 1400 e with a variation of 350 e rms that can be reduced to 80 e rms after tuning with the 3-bit adjustment. Electrical noise at the input is 170 e rms. Several read-out chips have been bump bonded to 200 micrometers thick GaAs pixel detectors. Test with (gamma) -ray and (beta) sources have been carried out. A number of objects have been imaged and a 260 micrometers thick aluminum foil which represents a contrast to the surrounding air of only 1.9 percent has been correctly imaged.

Paper Details

Date Published: 10 November 1998
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 3445, EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX, (10 November 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.330288
Show Author Affiliations
Maria Giuseppina Bisogni, Univ. degli Studi di Pisa (Italy) and INFN Pisa (Italy)
M. Campbell, CERN (Switzerland)
M. Conti, Univ. degli Studi di Napoli Federico II (Italy) and INFN Napoli (Italy)
Pasquale Delogu, Univ. degli Studi di Pisa (Italy) and INFN Pisa (Italy)
Maria Evelina Fantacci, Univ. degli Studi di Pisa (Italy) and INFN Pisa (Italy)
Erik H. M. Heijne, CERN (Switzerland)
Paolo Maestro, Univ. degli Studi di Pisa (Italy) and INFN Pisa (Italy)
G. Magistrati, Laben SpA (Italy)
V. M. Marzulli, Univ. degli Studi di Pisa (Italy) and INFN Pisa (Italy)
G. Meddeler, Univ. of Glasgow (Netherlands)
Bettina Mikulec, CERN (Switzerland)
Elena Pernigotti, Univ. degli Studi di Pisa (Italy) and INFN (Switzerland)
Valeria Rosso, Univ. degli Studi di Pisa (Italy) and INFN (Italy)
C. Schwarz, Univ. Freiburg (Germany)
W. Snoeys, CERN (Switzerland)
Simone Stumbo, Univ. degli Studi di Pisa (Italy) and INFN (Italy)
J. Watt, Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3445:
EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy IX
Oswald H. W. Siegmund; Mark A. Gummin, Editor(s)

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