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Proceedings Paper

Experimental analysis of microwave loss due to substrate carrier concentration in traveling-wave electro-optic modulators
Author(s): H. R. Khazaei; O. Berolo; Wei Jian Wang; P. Maigne; M. Young; K. Ozard; M. Reeves; Fadhel M. Ghannouchi
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Paper Abstract

Planar electrodes such as coplanar waveguides and coplanar strips are used in high-speed GaAs/AlGaAs traveling-wave electro-optic modulators. The modulation bandwidth of these modulators strongly depends on the microwave and optical velocity match and also on the microwave loss of the electrodes. The effect of substrate carrier concentration on the microwave loss of planar electrodes is experimentally investigated. Microwave losses were measured up to 40 GHz as a function of substrate carrier concentration over the range of 1 X 108 cm-3 to 2 X 1018 cm-3 using both epitaxially grown and ion-implanted GaAs/AlGaAs substrates. It was found that a critical residual carrier density limit of 5 X 1014 cm-3 exists, above which the microwave loss increases rapidly. These results were verified by growing a heterostructure optical waveguide with a carrier density of less than 5 X 1014 cm-3 and measuring the microwave loss. A modulation bandwidth in excess of 22 GHz and a half-wave voltage of 30 V were measured for this structure.

Paper Details

Date Published: 4 December 1998
PDF: 6 pages
Proc. SPIE 3491, 1998 International Conference on Applications of Photonic Technology III: Closing the Gap between Theory, Development, and Applications, (4 December 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.328662
Show Author Affiliations
H. R. Khazaei, Communications Research Ctr. (Canada)
O. Berolo, Communications Research Ctr. (Canada)
Wei Jian Wang, Communications Research Ctr. (Canada)
P. Maigne, Communications Research Ctr. (Canada)
M. Young, Nortel Technology (Canada)
K. Ozard, Nortel Technology (Canada)
M. Reeves, Nortel Technology (Canada)
Fadhel M. Ghannouchi, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal (Canada)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3491:
1998 International Conference on Applications of Photonic Technology III: Closing the Gap between Theory, Development, and Applications
George A. Lampropoulos; Roger A. Lessard, Editor(s)

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