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Proceedings Paper

Stereoscopic imaging through the sea surface: I. Theory and error analysis
Author(s): Mark S. Schmalz
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Paper Abstract

The detection and recognition of submerged objects via airborne or spaceborne imaging platforms can be problematic, due to distortions resulting from refraction at the sea surface as well as absorption and scattering in atmospheric and aqueous media. In previous research, we showed that, given point-to-point measurement of interfacial topography and estimates of media optical parameters, it is often possible to partially invert refractive effects and compensate for first- order optical effects such as absorption and single scattering, thereby producing a visually acceptable, image- based reconstruction of a submerged target. Additionally, information concerning target depth or surface topography is obtained. Although potentially useful for human-in-the-loop viewing scenarios, this method is not universally applicable to automated target recognition (ATR) due to reconstruction errors that tend to cluster in regions of detail. In this paper, we present theory and error analysis pertaining to stereoscopic viewing through a corrugated refractive interface and scattering media. Via stereoscopic imaging, one can produce a stereo pair image from which target depth and salient features can be extracted mathematically. Estimation of errors involved in this process is facilitated by partial knowledge of interfacial topography and is further enhanced by knowledge of media optical parameters. Analyses emphasize effects of sea state, topography estimation error, media optical parameters, and submergence depth. Reconstruction algorithm complexity is discussed in terms of work requirement applicable to sequential workstations and parallel computers.

Paper Details

Date Published: 4 September 1998
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 3392, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets III, (4 September 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.324185
Show Author Affiliations
Mark S. Schmalz, Univ. of Florida (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3392:
Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets III
Abinash C. Dubey; James F. Harvey; J. Thomas Broach, Editor(s)

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