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Proceedings Paper

Compact real-time 2D gradient-based analog VLSI motion sensor
Author(s): Ranier A. Deutschmann; Christof Koch
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Paper Abstract

In this work we present the first working focal plane analog VLSI sensor for the spatially resolved computation of the 2D motion field based on temporal and spatial derivatives. Using an adaptive CMOS photoreceptor the temporal derivative and a function of the spatial derivative of the local high intensity are computed. By multiplying these values separately for both spatial dimensions a vector is obtained, which points in the direction of the normal optical flow and whose magnitude for a given stimulus is proportional to its velocity. The circuit consists of only 31 MOSFETs and three capacitors per pixel. We present measurements data from fully functional prototype 2D pixel arrays for natural stimuli of varying velocity, orientation, contrast and spatial frequency. High direction selectivity even for very low contrast input is demonstrated. As application it is shown how the pixel-parallel architecture of the sensor can favorably be used for real-time computation of the focus of expansion and the axis of rotation. Because of its compactness, its robust operation and its uncritical handling the sensor might be favorably applied in industrial applications.

Paper Details

Date Published: 7 September 1998
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 3410, Advanced Focal Plane Arrays and Electronic Cameras II, (7 September 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.324003
Show Author Affiliations
Ranier A. Deutschmann, Walter Schottky Institute (Germany)
Christof Koch, California Institute of Technology (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3410:
Advanced Focal Plane Arrays and Electronic Cameras II
Thierry M. Bernard, Editor(s)

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