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Proceedings Paper

Accuracy and precision of 3D cephalometric landmarks from biorthogonal plain-film x rays
Author(s): David Dean; Martin Palomo; Krishna Subramanyan; Mark G. Hans; B. Holly Broadbent Jr.; Alexander Moullas; Omar Macaraeg
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Paper Abstract

Three dimensional (3D) plain film radiographic cephalometric analysis of boney skull landmarks may be used for patient diagnosis, treatment planning, prosthetic design, intra- operatively, and outcome assessment. To test the accuracy and reliability of 50 cephalometric landmarks, three dry human skulls, with and without metallic markers affixed to the landmarks, were digitized in our 3dCEPH software by 4 operators. The average inter-operator variability about mean landmark position, across all operators, for all 3 skull image pairs, was 3.33 mm. Ten landmarks exhibiting least variability were 1.15 mm average distance from the mean, including: B point 0.69 mm, Lower Incisal Edge 0.85 mm, and Anterior Nasal Spine 0.90 mm. The average rms error from the metallic fiducials for these 4 operators across all 50 landmarks, and 3 skulls was 5.03 mm. The 10 landmarks with the least variability exhibited 2.01 mm average distance from the fiducial, including: B point 1.69 mm, upper incisal edge 1.71 mm, lower incisal edge 1.78 mm. Additional studies are needed to test the robusticity of the hypothesis of homologous anatomy. Homology of landmarks is important to cephalometric comparisons between image pairs representing patient and 'normative,' pre- and post-surgical alteration, and different ages of the same patient.

Paper Details

Date Published: 26 June 1998
PDF: 9 pages
Proc. SPIE 3335, Medical Imaging 1998: Image Display, (26 June 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.312532
Show Author Affiliations
David Dean, Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Medicine (United States)
Martin Palomo, Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Dentistry (United States)
Krishna Subramanyan, Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Medicine (United States)
Mark G. Hans, Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Dentistry (United States)
B. Holly Broadbent Jr., Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Dentistry (United States)
Alexander Moullas, Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Dentistry (United States)
Omar Macaraeg, Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Medicine (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3335:
Medical Imaging 1998: Image Display
Yongmin Kim; Seong Ki Mun, Editor(s)

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