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Proceedings Paper

Improved simulation of photoresists using new development models
Author(s): Ralph R. Dammel; John P. Sagan; Elaine Kokinda; Neville Eilbeck; Chris A. Mack; Graham G. Arthur; Clifford L. Henderson; Steven A. Scheer; Benjamen M. Rathsack; C. Grant Willson
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Paper Abstract

A new development rate model is proposed which is based on an equation derived by Huang, Reiser and Kwei for the concentration dependence of the dissolution rate of acidic resins in aqueous alkaline developers. This equation predicts cessation of development at a critical concentration c*. Experiments in which the developer strength was varied shows that the critical concentration c* is a linear function of the normalized sensitizer concentration m of positive-tone resists. The model is shown to reproduce the R(m) curves of conventional photoresists well, but it does not fully the unusual drop in the development rate curves at comparatively low relative sensitizer concentrations of m equals 0.4 to 0.7 shown by high- performance resist systems. This physical phenomenon can be related to a selective dissolution effect in which the lower molecular weight component of the two-component resins typically used in these resists is leached out of the surface areas. The onset of this phenomenon leads to a sudden lowering of the resist dissolution rate which is described by the introduction of a `notch function.'

Paper Details

Date Published: 29 June 1998
PDF: 16 pages
Proc. SPIE 3333, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XV, (29 June 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.312399
Show Author Affiliations
Ralph R. Dammel, Clariant Corp. (United States)
John P. Sagan, Clariant Corp. (United States)
Elaine Kokinda, Clariant Corp. (United States)
Neville Eilbeck, Clariant Corp. (United Kingdom)
Chris A. Mack, Finle Technologies, Inc. (United States)
Graham G. Arthur, Rutherford Appleton Lab. (United Kingdom)
Clifford L. Henderson, Univ. of Texas/Austin (United States)
Steven A. Scheer, Univ. of Texas/Austin (United States)
Benjamen M. Rathsack, Univ. of Texas/Austin (United States)
C. Grant Willson, Univ. of Texas/Austin (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3333:
Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XV
Will Conley, Editor(s)

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