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Proceedings Paper

Photoacid generator study for chemically amplified negative resists for high-resolution lithography
Author(s): Paul M. Dentinger; Kurtis G. Knapp; Geoffrey W. Reynolds; James Welch Taylor; Theodore H. Fedynyshyn; Todd A. Richardson
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Paper Abstract

The effect of photoacid generator and photogenerated acid molecular structures on a negative-tone chemically-amplified resist was tested using two different sets of acid generators, each set with one formulation creating a 'volatile' acid, and the other formulation creating a 'non- volatile' acid when exposed to x-rays. The acids from one set were generated from a derivative of iodonium salt and the acids from the other set were generated from a covalently bound photoacid generator. Both sets were compared to Shipley SAL 605 resist. In this study of five formulations, normalized remaining thickness (NRT) curves, SEM images of printed lines, spectrophotometric titration of the photogenerated acid, real-time curves, SEM images of printed lines, spectrophotometric titration of the photogenerated acid, real-time FTIR for kinetics of the PEB reaction, dissolution rate measurements, and atomic force microscopy for surface roughness were employed. RT-FTIR suggested that both the proposed 'volatile' and 'non- volatile' acids were retained to approximately the same extent within the films cast from these formulations. A mechanism is suggested where the type of photogenerated acid has an effect on the kinetics of the reaction and the photogenerated acid or photoacid effect on the kinetics of the reaction and the photogenerated acid or photoacid generator has a large effect on the ability of the aqueous developer to penetrate or dissolve the film.

Paper Details

Date Published: 5 June 1998
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 3331, Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, (5 June 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.309618
Show Author Affiliations
Paul M. Dentinger, Ctr. for X-ray Lithography/Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)
Kurtis G. Knapp, Ctr. for X-ray Lithography/Univ. of Wisconsin-/Madison (United States)
Geoffrey W. Reynolds, Ctr. for X-ray Lithography/Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)
James Welch Taylor, Ctr. for X-ray Lithography/Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)
Theodore H. Fedynyshyn, Shipley Co. Inc. (United States)
Todd A. Richardson, Shipley Co. Inc. (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3331:
Emerging Lithographic Technologies II
Yuli Vladimirsky, Editor(s)

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