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Proceedings Paper

Integrated robotic vehicle control system for outdoor container handling
Author(s): Jouko O. Viitanen; Janne Haverinen; Pentti Mattila; Hannu Maekelae; Thomas von Numers; Zbigniev Stanek; Juha Roening
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Paper Abstract

We describe an integrated system developed for use onboard a moving work machine. The machine is targeted to such applications as e.g. automatic container handling at loading terminals. The main emphasis is on the various environment perception duties required by autonomous or semi-autonomous operation. These include obstacle detection, container position determination, localization needed for efficient navigation and measurement of docking and grasping locations of containers. Practical experience is reported on the use of several different types of technologies for the tasks. For close distance measurement, such as container row following, ultrasonic measurement was used, with associated control software. For obstacle and docking position detection, 3D active vision techniques were developed with structured lighting, utilizing also motion estimation techniques. Depth from defocus-based methods were developed for passive 3D vision. For localization, fusion of data from several sources was carried out. These included dead-reckoning data from odometry, an inertial unit, and several alternative external localization devices, i.e. real-time kinematic GPS, inductive and optical transponders. The system was integrated to run on a real-time operating system platform, using a high-level software specification tool that created the hierarchical control structure of the software.

Paper Details

Date Published: 26 September 1997
PDF: 15 pages
Proc. SPIE 3208, Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XVI: Algorithms, Techniques, Active Vision, and Materials Handling, (26 September 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.290317
Show Author Affiliations
Jouko O. Viitanen, VTT Automation (Finland)
Janne Haverinen, Univ. of Oulu (Finland)
Pentti Mattila, VTT Automation (Finland)
Hannu Maekelae, VTT Automation (Finland)
Thomas von Numers, VTT Automation (Finland)
Zbigniev Stanek, VTT Automation (Finland)
Juha Roening, Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3208:
Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XVI: Algorithms, Techniques, Active Vision, and Materials Handling
David P. Casasent, Editor(s)

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