Proceedings PaperStability and reversibility of the electrochromic effect in fullerene thin films
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The electrochromic effect is observed in fullerene thin films when, under applied electric field, various ionic species are intercalated into the interstitial spaces between fullerene molecules. Within limits, the process is electrically reversible. Residual oxygen, both in the electrolyte system and in the fullerene thin film itself, as well as trace water levels, significantly degrade electrochromic stability. The degree of electrochromic intercalation affects reversibility. However, this is complicated by the mobility of the intercalant ion and the resulting stoichiometric gradients within the fullerene thin film. The details of film preparation and electrolyte preconditioning are discussed, in addition to time-resolved transparency changes during forward and reverse electrochemical intercalation. Potential applications in large area non-volatile flat panel displays and integrated optoelectronic devices are also considered.