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Proceedings Paper

Application of multilayer coatings to replicated substrates
Author(s): Suzanne E. Romaine; Ahsen M. Hussain; John E. Everett; Anna M. Clark; Ricardo J. Bruni; Paul Gorenstein; Mauro Ghigo; Francesco Mazzoleni; Oberto Citterio; Joseph Pedulla
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Paper Abstract

We are engaged in a program to develop focusing hard x-ray telescopes in a double conical or Wolter 1 geometry that function up to 100 keV by employing small graze angles and multilayer coatings. Directly polished substrates are not an option because they are too thick to be nested efficiently. The only alternative is to fabricate the very thin substrates by replication. Our objective is the production of integral cylindrical substrates because they should result in better angular resolution than segmented foil geometries. In addition, integral cylinders would be more resistant to possible stress from deep multilayer coatings than segmented ones. Both electroforming of nickel (method of SAX, JET-X, and XMM) and epoxy replication are under consideration. Both processes can utilize the same types of mandrels and separation agents. While electroforming can produce substrates that are thin, the high density of the nickel may result in high weight optics for some missions. For convenience, experimentation with replication and coating is being carried out initially on flats. Our replication studies include trials with gold and carbon separation agents. This paper reports on our efforts with epoxy replicated optics.

Paper Details

Date Published: 11 July 1997
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 3113, Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, (11 July 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.278854
Show Author Affiliations
Suzanne E. Romaine, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Ahsen M. Hussain, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (Denmark)
John E. Everett, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Anna M. Clark, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Ricardo J. Bruni, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Paul Gorenstein, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics (United States)
Mauro Ghigo, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera-Milano (Italy)
Francesco Mazzoleni, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera-Milano (Italy)
Oberto Citterio, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera-Milano (Italy)
Joseph Pedulla, National Institute for Standards and Technology (United States)


Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 3113:
Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems
Richard B. Hoover; Arthur B. C. Walker, Editor(s)

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